Respiratory Disorder

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Respiratory Disorder

Allergic Rhinitis

What is allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, is an allergic response to specific allergens. this allergic response to allergens is responsible for inflammation in the nose which finally presents group of sign and symptoms. Signs and symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, red, itchy, and watery eyes, and swelling around the eyes.[2]
The immune system responds to the allergen by releasing histamine and chemical mediators that typically cause symptoms in the nose, throat, eyes, ears, skin and roof of the mouth.
Some typical allergens are grass, dust, and mold. Pollen is the most common allergen. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is most often caused by pollen.

Types of allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis takes two different forms:

  • Seasonal: Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can occur in spring, summer and early fall. They are usually caused by allergic sensitivity to airborne mold spores or to pollens from grass, trees and weeds.
  • Perennial: People with perennial allergic rhinitis experience symptoms year-round. It is generally caused by dust mites, pet hair or dander, cockroaches or mold. Underlying or hidden food allergies rarely cause perennial nasal symptoms.

Cause

Common causes of allergic rhinitis include:

• pollen
• dust
• animal dander (old skin
• mold

Pollen is the biggest culprit, especially during certain times of the year.

Risc factor-

Allergies can happen to anyone, but you’re more likely to develop allergic rhinitis if your family has a history of allergies.

There are also external factors that can trigger this condition or make it worse. These include:

• cigarette smoke
• chemicals
• cold temperatures
• humidity
• wind
• air pollution
• hairspray
• perfumes and colognes
• wood smoke
• fumes

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis may develop within minutes or hours after you breathe in an allergen. The symptoms can last for days.

Symptoms that often start as soon as you breathe in an allergen include:

• Sneezing over and over again, especially after you wake up in the morning.
• A runny nose.
• A tickle in your throat or coughing caused by postnasal drip.
• Watery, itchy eyes.
• headache
• decreased sense of smell
• Itchy ears, nose, and throat…skin or any area.
• CA stuffy nose, possibly with sniffing. This is the most common symptom in children.
• Breathing through your mouth because your nose is blocked.
• Rubbing your nose. Children tend to do this.
• Eyes being sensitive to light.
• Feeling tired, grumpy, or moody.
• Not sleeping well.
• A long-lasting (chronic) cough.
• Pressure in your ear or having a hard time hearing.
• Discomfort or pain in your face.
• Dark circles or patches under your eyes (allergic shiners).

Other problems with symptoms similar to allergic rhinitis include upper respiratory infections (URIs), nasal defects, and inflammation (rhinitis) not caused by an allergen (nonallergic rhinitis).

Complication

In some cases, allergic rhinitis can lead to complications. These include:

• nasal polyps – abnormal but benign (non-cancerous) sacs of fluid that grow inside the nasal passages and sinuses
• sinusitis – an infection caused by nasal inflammation and swelling that prevents mucus draining from the sinuses
• middle ear infections – infection of part of the ear located directly behind the eardrum

Asthma

What is bronchial asthma ?

Bronchial asthma is chronic disease of the lungs in which air ways of the lungs are inflammed and also characterized by recurrent episodes of airways obstruction which is characteristically reversible.

There is no age bar for it but more then 50 % cases are noticed in children of less then 10-12 yrs of age.

Asthma is associated with mast cells, t-lymphocytes and eosinophils. And these cells are responsible for inflammation of the airways, hyperresponsive and air flow limitation. And due to these cells asthma and allergies are closely linked.

Sign and symptoms

Asthma patient will feel shortness of breath, wheezings ….frequent coughing with sputum production [difficult to bring up],chest tightness.

Difficult breathing is mostly at bed time or early hrs of morning or while doing physical exercise …or cold weather.

Causes

Asthma is combination of genetic and environmental factors ….which includes
Smoking [ passive and direct], extreme change in temperature, infections,exercise, chemical fumes, air pollutions, allergens[ pollens, mold,animal dander,dustmites], stress and anxiety, certain drugs, food[msg] .

Complications of asthma

Badly controlled asthma can lead to pneumonia , collapse of lung, status asthmaticus [asthma stops responding to treatment], in severe cases asthma may lead to respiratory failure.
Apart from pathological changes bad asthma can be responsible for under performance from work, stress, anxiety, depression…fatigue.

Bronchitis

What is bronchitis ?

Bronchitis is a respiratory ailment characterized by an inflammation of the main airways of the lungs (bronchi). This is usually caused by infection (viral, bacterial, fungal, etc) or allergy .
Paients with bronchitis have a reduced ability to breathe in air and oxygen into their lungs; they also have heavy mucus or phlegm forming in their airways.
Bronchitis attacks are more common and frequent in young children below 6¬-7 yrs .

Types of bronchitis

• Acute bronchitis — in acute bronchitis cough last for 3-4 weeks and this is mostly due to viral infections. In few cases it is due to bacteria infection and dust and air pollution also.
• Chronic bronchitis – this is more serious condition and constant irritation and inflammation of the lining of bronchial tubes .when productive cough is there for more then 3 months and at least for two years it comes under chronic bronchitis..in most of the cases tobacco smoking and air pollution is responsible for chronic bronchitis.

Causes

• Infections [viruses,bacteria,fungus]
• Tobacco
• Allery to environemental factor or air pollutants,fumes .
• Exposure to temperature changes (extreme cold, change from cold to heat and vise versa,etc.

Symptoms

acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis, signs and symptoms may include:

• Cough [ dry or with mucus]
• wheezing
• Shortness of breath
• Slight fever and chills[in acute infections]
• Chest discomfort
• Sore throat
• Fatigue

Complication

• Repeated bouts of bronchitis can create or can be responsible for copd.[chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]
• Secondary infections in lungs can lead to pneumonia.
• Emphysema in this lungs becomes expanded which prevents breathing.
• Respiratory failure.

Laryngitis

What is laryngitis?

The larynx is voice box that allows us to speak, shout, whisper, and sing. Inflammation of the voice box is Laryngitis. There are 2 different types of laryngitis, Acute and chronic. Hoarseness and loss of voice is the primary symptom of laryngitis. In case of infective laryngitis, patients mostly present with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection or common cold, but in that case also the following symptoms should present like, dry cough, sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes, dysphagia or pain with swallowing and feeling of fullness in the throat.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated ?

In children with infected laryngitis may develop difficulty in breathing. In cases of vocal cord paralysis, the swallowing mechanism may also be affected. The food particles may enter the larynx and lungs leading to coughing. This process can also lead to pneumonia. Chronic laryngitis when caused by the excess usage of alcohol, smoking, or excess of coughing might prolong for more than 3 weeks. Most of the time the acute laryngitis, if un-treated or mal-treated, develop lower respiratory tract infection like chronic bronchitis and pneumonia can develop.Modern-day conventional treatment for laryngitis is very limited. There are some NSAIDs, anti-biotics, steroidal treatment is there, which is having only for the short time relief of the condition followed by coming back of the original status when the action of the medication is over and these medicine if taken for long time, injudiciously, might lead to some serious complications of Gastro-intestinal tract or urinary system.

Pharyngitis or Sore Throat

What is sore thoat ?

Sore throat is mostly happen due to the viral or bacterial infection of the throat. Most common viruses that causes the sore throat is mononucleosis and the flu. Other than this there are different bacterias which cause the sore throat. There will be some amount of dry hacking cough and acute and fulminant type of sore throat always present with fever. The children might present with swelling of the neck gland, tonsillitis, symptoms of upper respiratory tract inflammation (URI) like low-to-high grade fever, body ache, malaise, watery nasal discharge, stuffy nose. The child may become very cranky and irritable.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated?

Sorethroat when it is un-treated for the long time it might turn into lower respiratory tract infection causing pneumonia and bronchitis. In case of acute fulminant type of sore throat, the patient may develop some viremia or bacteremia where the patient might be presenting with some acute high rise of temperature, vomiting, anorexia that might lead to mal-nutrition, weight loss. The acute pharyngitis might lead to the chronic form where the patient would be having the repeated attack of acute pharyngitis.

Present-day conventional treatment includes some anti-pyeretic, anti-allergic, anti-biotic medication and in some of the un-controlled cases the condtion may require systemic steroidal treatments as well. But, all these medications are having only some short-term action and the condition of the disease comes into the original condition as soon as the effect of the medication is over. Other than this, these medications are having its own potent systemic side-effects.

Sinusitis

What is sinusitis ?

Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses. It occurs as the result of an infection from a virus, bacteria, or fungus. Allergies, air pollution.

A sinus is a hollow air space in the skull. The anatomical presence of these cavities makes our skull light for our neck to bear it. Sinuses also provide the resonance to our tone when we speak. So, the presence of the sinuses is not a problem but it is their inflammation (sinusitis) that causes distress. Inflammation can be acute, recurrent or of chronic nature.

Causes

• When the sinus openings become blocked or too much mucus builds up, bacteria and other germs can grow more easily.
• Colds and allergies may cause too much mucus to be made or block the opening of the sinuses.
• A deviated nasal septum, nasal bone spur, or nasal polyps may block the opening of the sinuses.
• h/o allergic rhinitis
• large adenoids
• changes in altitude
• Conditions that result in an increased risk of infection such as immune deficiencies or takingmedications that suppress the immune system.

Types

There are several types of sinusitis, including

• Acute, which lasts up to 4 weeks
• Subacute, which lasts 4 to 12 weeks
• Chronic, which lasts more than 12 weeks and can continue for months or even years

Symptoms

  •  Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)
  • Nasal stuffiness or congestion
  • Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
  •  Frontal headaches
  • Pain in the teeth
  • Coughing with mucus production.
  • Bad breathing.
  • Difficult breathing.

HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT

Homeopathic medicines fight against the inherent tendency to have sinusitis repeatedly.
Correct homeopathic remedy cannot only reduce the frequency and intensity of the disease but also strengthen the immunity against the respective infections.
Individual tendency to frequent upper respiratory infections or sinusitis can best be treated with homeopathic approach of individualistic treatment.

Allergic Bronchitis

What is allergic bronchitis ?

Allergic bronchitis is type of asthmatic condition where the bronchi and the lower airway of the respiratory system is inflamed by irritants and allergens.

Allergic bronchitis is also commonly called as allergic asthma. This particular condition is triggered by an overly active immune system that attacks harmless foreign substances that enters the body. The immune system identifies the foreign substance as dangerous and releases antibodies to fight the substance.

Causes

An allergic bronchitis is caused by different environmental & genetic factors namely:

• Tobacco smoke
• Dust
• Pollution
• Mold
• Chemicals
• Animal dander.
• Faulty diet leading to the triggering of respiratory tract infections in the body
• Heredity

Symptoms

• Shortness of breath
• Cough that llasts for atleast three months.
• Wheezing sound
• Fatigue
• chest pain
• sore throat
• Swelling in the lips
• headaches
• Bluish-gray skin color.

Complication

Allergic bronchitis is a chronic condition that can lead to complications like COPD, severe shortness of breath, respiratory failure and even death.

Nasal Polyp

What are nasal polyp ?

Nasal polyps are common, noncancerous, teardrop-shaped growths that arises from the mucous membrane of the nose or sinuses, usually around the area where the sinuses open into the nasal cavity. Mature nasal polyps look like seedless, peeled grapes.they are frequently

Movable and non tender..

Small polyp generally do not require any treatment but large polyp can block the drainage of the sinuses.

Nasal polyp are one of the common affection of the upper respiratory tract.

Causes

During an infection or allergy-induced irritation, the nasal mucosa becomes swollen and red, and it may produce fluid that drips out. With prolonged irritation, the mucosa may form a polyp.

Here’s often a trigger for developing polyps. These triggers include:

• chronic or recurring sinus infections
• asthma
• allergic rhinitis, or hay fever

Symptoms

• running nose
• frequent sneezing
• nasal blockage
• feeling of mucus continuously from back of throat.
• reduced sense of smell
• nasal congestion
• snoring
• sleep apnoea
• loss of taste

If you have nasal polyps, you have an increased risk of chronic sinusitis.

Complication

If not treated polyps can lead to….

• Chronic sinusitis
• Asthamatic attacks
• Obstrucive sleep apnea

Copd

What is copd ?

Copd is a progressive lung disorder which causes poor air flow due to certain pathological changes in air passages and air sacs of lungs .

this lung disease includes Chronic bronchitis and emphysema in most of the cases .

Copd is diagnosed in people above 40 yrs of age

In early stage of disease this may go unnoticed due to lack of symptoms but as the disease advances symptoms becomes more prominent.that is why patient should consult a doctor as soon as he gets the symptoms.

Causes

• Cigarette smoking
• Air pollutants[dust,fumes,chemical] work place.
• Genetics can also be responsible even if the person has h/o smoking or not. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is the most commonly known genetic risk factor for emphysema.

Symptoms

• Increased breathlessness as copd will progress you may be short of breath even while doing simple tasks like walking or getting dressed.
• Frequent Coughing with or without mucus production.
• Chest tightenss
• Wheezing

Complications

• Frequent respiratory infections -copd patients are more susceptible for cold and flu and pneumonia.
• Heart problems copd –will increase risk of heart disease and heart disease.
• Lung cancer
• High blood pressure
• depression