Skin Diseases

Skin Diseases

Acne or Pimples

What is acne ?

Acne is common skin disease of teenagers and young generation. Most of patient with acne are aged between 12 to 30 yrs.acne usually affects face ,upper back and chest.

Acne occurs due to hormonal changes in teenage . and due to action of androgen hormones on the sebaceous gland [oil gland] these glands become over active and enlarge and secrete more sebum[oil] and excess sebum and dead cells block the oil gland and this blocked oil gland is creates perfect environment for bacteria which results in pimples or acne with redness ,swelling and pus formation.

Some other causes of acne

Other then hormonal changes …pcos [polycystic ovarian syndrome] in females may also casue acne , in other causes some contraceptive pills, hormonal changes around menstrual period may also trigger the acnes. In some cases strong family history of acne is also known to cause acne .

Symptoms of acne

Symptoms includes scaly redness, swelling,pusformation,pigmentation, from long lasted acne,Pain and itching ,blackhead,whitehead over the affected areas.

Types of acne

Acne can be of many types like papular,pustular cystic, nodular,ulcerative.

Complications of acne

Chronic and untreated acnes can lead to pigmenattaion ,scarring and facial disfigurement.

Since acne can not be hidden it can lead to social inhibition , depression .inferiority complex in youngsters.

Self care tips of acne

• Avoid too much of washing and scrubbing of affected areas.
• Always clean the face with lukewarm water too much hot or cold water can increase irriation of the skin.
• Never pinch or touch the acnes which not only spread the infection but can be responsible for pigmentation.
• Always use the natural products for skin and avoid too much of cosmetics.
• Eat healthy food, fruits and vegetables and drink plenty of water.

Corn

What is a corn[callosities]

Corns or callosities are thickened or hard areas of skin that is created due to frequent rubbing …constant frequent friction over the skin.

Generally corns are formed on the feet and fingers .

Corns develop as a result of defense mechanism of the skin against repeated areas of friction and pressure.

Women are generally more affected than men due to ill-fitted shoes.

Causes of corn

Foot wear have major role in corn development –tight and ill-fitted shoes ,high heeled shoes,hard and thin soled shoes can cause corn.

Foot deformities like bony projections or hammer toes causes corn more frequently.

Abnormal gait can cause increase pressure at different point of sole can cause corn.

Walking and dancing bare feet frequently .

Professions—like writers, Weight lifting, playing guitar,drum, hair dressing ,carpentery can cause corn formation.

Certain disease conditions like chronic diabetes , rheumatoid arthritis ,obesity can also cause corns.

Symptoms of corn

Corns initially starts with thickened and hard skin which some times may lead to itching ,pain and aching esp while putting pressure over the affected areas like walking or dancing …and affected areas may also get dry and horny .

Complication of corn

Ignored or badly treated corns may lead to abscess formation …some time it may lead to ulcers formation also.
Complications are more common in diabetes and poor circulation.

Prevention of corn

• Always use soft pad and cushions over the areas which are more prone to corn.
• Person prone to get corns esp diabetic patients should use more comfortable and well fitted shoes and should avoid shoes which put more pressure on last toes .

Dermatitis or Eczema

What is eczema ?

Eczema is a general term for the different types of inflammations of the epidermal layer of skin.. Eczema is also called dermatitis.
And it shows symptoms of redness,dryess ,scaly,rashes over the face,inside of elbow,back ofknees,
Hands and feet,behind ears.it is a long lasting condition.
Eczema is not contagious .people living in dry climate appear to be more likely to develop eczema.
It occurs equally in both males and female.

Types of eczema

  •  Atopic eczema-this is most severe and chronic and common type of eczema.and also known as childhood eczema.
  • Allergic contact eczema (dermatitis) – a reaction where the skin has come into contact with a substance that the immune system recognizes as foreign body.
  • Dyshidriotic [pompholyx] eczema – irritation of skin on palms of hands and soles of feet, characterized by blisters.
  • Neurodermatitis – scaly patches of skin on head, forearms, wrists, lower legs caused by localized itch such as an insect bite.
  • Nummular[discoid] eczema – circular coin shape patches of irritated skin that can be crusted, scaling and itchy.mostly in older age group.
  • Seborrheic eczema – oily, scaly yellowish patches of skin, usually on scalp and face.

Stasis dermatitis – Skin irritation on lower legs, usually related to circulatory problems more in lower legs. Xerotic (dry skin) eczema: When the skin becomes pathologically dry, it will crack and ooze.
Xerotic (dry skin) eczema: When the skin becomes pathologically dry, it will crack and ooze.

Causes of eczema

The specific cause of eczema is still unknown but some kind of environmental and hereditary factors are are involved in development of eczema.
Children are likely to develop eczema if a parent had h/o eczema or any other atopic disease.
Other then genetic some other causes of eczema include use of detergents ,disinfectants certain food item milk dairy products, vages, fish wheat.
dust mite, animal dander. Hot weather, high and low humidity, are other common reasons for eczema.
Some women can experience eczema during hormonal change such as pregnancy and menopausal and some point of menstrual period.

Symptoms of eczema

In eczema there will be itching, redness, swelling ,cracks ,blister and some times oozing of watery discharge from the affected areas.

Herpes – Simplex and Zoster

What are herpes simplex infections?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause infections that affect the mouth, the face, the genitals, the skin, the buttocks, and the anal area. This article will concentrate on non-genital herpes. Many people acquire the virus and have no symptoms. For others, painful blisters appear near the area where the virus entered the body. Typically, the blisters heal completely but reappear at some point in the future when least expected (or desired). In between attacks, the virus resides deep in the roots of the nerves that supply the involved area.

When herpes simplex lesions appear in their most common location, around the mouth and lips, people often refer to them as “cold sores” and “fever blisters.”

 

What causes cold sores?

There are two types of HSV, type I and type II. In general, type I, also known as herpes labialis, causes infections above the waist, most commonly as oral “cold sores.” Type II infections occur mainly below the waist, leading to genital herpes. However, both types of HSVs are capable of infecting the skin at any location on the body.

Herpes infections, no matter where they occur first, have a tendency to recur in more or less the same place. Such recurrences may happen often (for example, once a month) or only occasionally (for example, once or twice a year).

How do cold sores spread?

Infections caused by HSV are contagious. The virus is spread from person to person by kissing, by close contact with herpetic lesions, or even from contact with apparently normal skin that is shedding the virus. Infected saliva is a common means of virus transmission. People are most contagious when they have active blister-like sores. Once the blisters have dried and crusted over (within a few days), the risk of contagion is significantly lessened. However, a person infected with HSV can pass it on to another person regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. This is because the virus is sometimes shed in saliva even when sores are not present. Despite popular myth, it is almost impossible to catch herpes (cold sores) from surfaces, towels, or washcloths.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis : Classical Homeopathy Has an Answer

Psoriasis is an intricate skin disease. It is an autoimmune skin disorder where there is rapid proliferation of skin cells causing red and dry plaques of thickened skin. It generally associated with mild to moderate degree of itching, exacerbated during winter season when the atmospheric humidity goes down. Psoriasis commonly affects the skin of elbows, knees, and scalp. Mostly scalp psoriasis is mis-interpreted as dandruff or seborrhoea. Psoriasis is absolutely non-contagious. The actual cause for psoriasis is still a mystery for modern science. It is believed that repeated trauma to a particular area, un-resolved stress for quite a long time and genetic predisposition are the most probable exciting factors for Psoriasis. Psoriasis is associated with joint problem in abut 10-35% of the patients. Sometimes psoriasis may affect the nails causing brittle nails and oil spots over the nails. According to modern science, Psoriasis is still considered to be non-curable disease.

As per the classical homeopathy we treat the diseased individual as a whole not only disease per se. After detailed case history, we figure out the most possible exciting cause for disease formation and accordingly we prescribe one single Homeopathy medicine with proper attenuation. This medicine goes root of the disease and the basic defect for which the disease is persisting is gradually eradicated and the person is free from disease.

Diet and proper lifestyle is also very important for the persons suffering from Psoriasis.

10 Important tips to follow in Psoriasis:

1. Always use lukewarm water for bathing with mild and non-fragrant soap.
2. Apply mild and non-fragrant moisturizer or one can use coconut oil before and after bathing.
3. During winter wear cotton inner, over it one can wear the woollen dresses. Also cover your body mostly with the cotton clothes to avoid direct exposure to the dry wind.
4. Keep your nails trimmed always. Finger nails and toe nails should be taken proper care. Wash with mild soap in a lukewarm water and apply moisturizer regularly before going for bed.
5. Try to quit smoking and alcohol.
6. Try to control your weight always, because in case of obesity the joint spaces would get deteriorated faster and can develop Psoriatic Arthritis.
7. Avoid red meat as it increases inflammation.
8. Exposure to the morning sunrays for 15 minutes every day.
9. Introduce relaxing exercises like yoga and meditation on a daily basis.
10. Alsi (Flax seeds) contains good amount of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, which increases skin regeneration. So try to take 2 teaspoon of Flax seeds every day.

Dr. Arnab Mukherjee, BHMS (Calcutta University)

 

Urticaria

What is urticaria [hives] ?

Urticaria is a common vascular skin disorder which is also known as hives or weals . it appears as rashes raised ,itchy, red or skin colour , and swollen involving the one part of body or across large area .
Most of the cases of urticaria are self limiting and of short duration
Rashes varies in size from few millimeters to the size of hand. Although affected area may change in appearance with in 24 hrs rashes may settle with in few days .

Urticaria is of two type :

Acute urticaria : if the rashes clears with in 6 week.
Chronic urticaria : rashes with recurrent episodes persists for more than 6 weeks ..

Cause of urticaria :

The exact cause is still unknown ..allergic rashes or hives are formed when in response to antigen antibody reactions histamine is released which has the property to dilate the small blood vessels or cause vaso dilatation .

Triggering or risk for this allergic reaction are :

• Physical stimuli such as excess heat or cold, exercise , sun exposure.
• Certain food [cheese ,milk products,pea nuts, nuts eggs.]
• Some medication like antibiotics [ PENECILLIN,SULFA ], IBUPROFEN,ASPIRIN ,NSAID .
• Insect bites .
• Emotional stress
• Drinking alchol
• Latex
• Blood transfusion.
• Viral infections such as common cold ,hepatitis.
• Pollens
• Pet dander
• Some plants like poison ivy or oak.

Symptoms of urticaria :

• Skin rashes are red coloured wheals with clear edges usually appear suddenly and go away as quickly.rashes may be irregular ,round or vertical lines in nature
• Rashes will have intense itching.
• Rashes can appear any area of body they may change shape ,move around reappear over shorter period of time.
• On pressure the centre of red hive turns white this is called blanching.
• In angio neurotic oedema or giant urticaria there will be swelling at the deeper level which involves lips,mouth ,larynx. Which may lead to suffocation in severe cases.

Dos and don’ts of urticara :

• Do not ignore early sign and symptoms.
• avoid the food and medicines which trigger the disease .
• always follow a healthy and active life style.
• Practice yoga and meditation as daily routine .
• Apply coconut oil to the affected are for soothing in itching.

Vitiligo

What is vitiligo or Leukoderma or white patch?

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder of skin. In this disorder the pigment cells [melanocytes] are lost from a particular portion of the affected skin.

Melanin is the pigment produced by melanocytes. This is responsible for color of our skin but in vitiligo, these cells stop making color or they die and this causes de-pigmentation of the affected parts.

It can be focal or localized to one area or it can affect several different areas of the body.

It presents with well defined milky white patches of the skin. It may be more noticeable in people with darker skin. The extent and rate of color loss in vitiligo is unpredictable. It can affect the skin on any part of the body.

Males and females are equally affected with this disease. It may appear before the age of 20 years.

This disease is not life threatening or contagious, but due to cosmetic reasons, person affected with this can have emotional and psychological consequences.

Causes of vitiligo:

Exact reasons for vitiligo are unknown but it can be related to:

• An autoimmune disease: Immune system mistakenly destroys the melanocytes [pigment cells] in the skin.
• Vitiligo many a times runs in the family.
• The persons who are living in continuous and unresolved stress or grief may develop vitiligo.
• A triggering event such as sunburn or exposure to industrial chemical may lead to vitiligo.
Sometimes injury or trauma can also alter the immunity.
• Hormonal factors: Certain hormones affection such as thyroid hormone and melanocytes stimulating hormone can cause vitiligo.

Symptoms of vitiligo:

• A visible milky White patch, which can be single or multiple .
• Shape too is variable from oval to irregular in shape.
• Common area of their presence in sun exposed areas like face, arms, hands, legs, and feet. They can also appear in arm pits, genitals, abdomen, around mouth.
• Premature graying of hair on your scalp, eyelashes or eyebrows.

Types of vitiligo:

Focal [localized] vitiligo: when one or only few areas of your body is affected this type is called focal vitiligo.

Segmental vitiligo: when one side or part of your body is affected this type is called segmental vitiligo.

Generalized vitiligo: this is most common type, when many different parts of your body is affected called generalized vitiligo. This vitiligo is very difficult to treat.

Complications of vitiligo:

Sometimes focal vitiligo if not treated on time or ignored can convert into generalize Vitiligo which is not curable.
Patients with vitiligo may have low confidence and they can be sad and depressed due to their disease.
Children with this disease sometimes restrict themselves from socializing due to fear of rejection.

DOS AND DON’TS OF VITILIGO:

• Start the treatment as soon as you notice the first patch.
• Every white patch is not vitiligo, so you need to consult the doctor.
• Always apply sunscreen [>spf 30 ] two time’s day, before going out in the sun.
• Always wear full sleeves shirts or cover the sensitive areas.
• Avoid sour food, citrus fruits such as lemon, as some studies have shown that it may aggravate the vitiligo.
• Try to take healthy and balanced diet which includes vitamin, minerals and calcium.
• Take fresh and colorful vegetables as much as you can.
• Avoid fast food, preservatives and soft drinks they are biggest culprit in your diet.
• Include omega 3 fatty acid in your diet such as fish, walnuts, almonds, flax seeds to boost your immunity.
• Use mild soap and creams if you have vitiligo.
• Never apply any cosmetics without your doctor’s permission.

Warts

What are warts ?

Warts are non cancerous growth on your skin caused by human papilloma virus or HPV. Warts are painless and harmless in most of the cases. HPV stimulates quick growth of cells on the outer layer of skin and form a wart.

Wart viruses are contagious.you can get a wart from touching wart on some one’s body .

Warts are more common in children.

In most of the cases warts appear on the on the fingers,near finger nails ,hands ,face. Certain type of HPV can also cause warts to appear in the genital area and genital HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world.

Cause of warts :

Human papilloma virus causes warts and it is easy to catch a virus when your skin is cut or damaged that is why so many children get warts.
Warts are more common on the body parts which are shaved as the beard area in men and legs and hands in women. Warts can spread from person to person.

Symptoms of warts :

In most of the cases warts do not have any symptoms but some Warts are painful and itchy … and some times they can also bleed on touch .
Warts are fleshy ,rough to touch , they are horny or have cauliflower like growth .
They contain tiny blood vessels with in them that look like back dots.

Complications of warts :

Warts can lead to poor self confidence and self esteem especially if they are on face and hands .
Certain types of HPV can cause cervical cancer ,cancer of vulva and of penis.

DO’S AND DON’TS OF WARTS :

• Always monitor the warts for sign of change .
• Always keep the affected area clean and dry.
• Avoid picking or cutting the affected area as it may lead to infection or scarring.
• Always keep personal use things separate as towel ,nail clipper .
• Always wash hands properly after putting medicines on your childs warts .
• To avoid spreading of infection avoid brushing or coming in affected area.

Atopic Dermatitis

What is atopic dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing skin disease which involves inflammation of the skin.

This starts with dry skin which is often very itchy which leads to scratching which causes dry skin to become red and irritated sometimes blister may also appear and oozes watery discharge. Over the time rashes can lead to tough and thickened skin.

Children often get atopic dermatitis in their first year of life; it tends to flare periodically and then subside.
Most of the people who suffer from this disease have personal or family history of allergies Such as allergic rhinitis or asthma.
This is also characterized by dry itchy patches over face [cheeks] ,forehead, creases of elbow, knees.

Causes of atopic dermatitis:

The causes of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but in most of the cases this disease

Results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

• Most of the people who have atopic dermatitis have a personal or family history of
allergies.
• Occasionally things that trap dust may worsen the condition like old carpets, pillow, mattress, woolens.
• Things which can aggravate to symptoms of atopic dermatitis include harsh soaps, detergents, allergens…dust mite, animal dander,
• Extreme weather changes like cold and dry weather.
• Certain food allergy like eggs, milk, fish soya products, any kind of air pollution or tobacco smoking.
• Stress can also trigger the disease.
• Some bacterial or viral infections too can aggravate the disease.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis:

• The patient will feel itching over the affected areas especially at night.
• Redness over the affected areas which mostly are face, scalp elbow, knees ,upper chest, hands and feet.
• Thickening and lichenification of the affected areas.
• Sensitive and swollen skin from scratching.
• Sometimes blisters formation is also there which have watery discharge.
• Personal history of asthma or hay fever or h/o atopic disease in close relative .

Complications of atopic dermatitis:

Bacterial infection is extremely common in atopic dermatitis the patients with atopic dermatitis are more prone to skin infections due to breaks in skin which is because of dryness and scratching the itchy areas as result they frequently suffer from boils and folliculitis.

Viral infections like herpes and moll scum infections are also common.

Severe atopic dermatitis can also lead to erythroderma which is generalized redness of the skin and can be fatal if left without treatment.

Above and all since this disease is also known as childhood eczema it can have major impact
On child as due to restrictions of activities like sports, swimming child may become shy, depressed and withdrawn due to embarrassment of visible skin disease.

Dos and don’ts of atopic dermatitis:

• Always keep the affected area properly moisturized with coconut oil or mild cream this will reduce itching and irritation and best time to moisturize skin is after bath when skin is damp .
• Always dress the kids in soft cotton fabrics.
• Avoid too hot and long baths rather water should be lukewarm.
• Keep the child’s nails trimmed to avoid too much scratching.
• Avoid extreme heat, extreme cold and dry weather.
• Try to stay happy and don’t be stressed for minor hurdles in life it can worsen the symptoms.
• Wear loose fitting clothes.
• Don’t go for swimming if chlorine in pool makes you worse.
• Avoid harsh soaps, detergents.

Lichen Planus

What is lichen planus ?

Lichen planus is chronic autoimmune skin disorder which affects skin and mucous membrane

Lichen planus generally affects adults and can involve any portion of body but it is more found on hands legs ,oral and genital tissues.this is characterized by small flat topped ,purplish eruptions on affected area.

This is not contagious disease it means this disease in not passed on other persons by any means .

Causes of lichen planus:

In most of the cases exact cause in unknown.it may be related to immune or allergic reaction.

Exposure to certain chemicals used in the development of colored photographs, dye ,medicines which are used for high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, malaria, antibiotics, nonstreriodal anti inflammatory pain killers can develop similar rashes. Therefore it is important to tell your doctor about medications you are taking .

Some cases of lichen planus can be linked to chronic hepatitis c infections.it can cause serious liver damage or cirrhosis.

Emotional stress can also trigger the disease.

Some time oral eruptions are related to certain products used during dental procedures. So removal of these material can be helpful.

Lichen planus offten appears after the injury to certain parts called kobnerisation.

Symptoms of the lichen planus:

• Lichen planus will appear as small ,flat topped red to purple round or irregular shaped eruptions .
• lacy white lesions in the mouth.. or inside of cheeks or gums which might be painful.
• These eruptions can have mild to severe itching .
• Lichen planus is mostly found around wrist, forarm, legs around ankles, scalp, mouth, around nails, genitals.
• Hair loss and scalp dicolouration.
• Nail damage …discolouration or loss.

Types of lichen planus

Lichen planus can occur in different forms like annular [ring shaped], linear[eruptions are arranged in a line ],hypertrophic[ thick patches occurs on extremities most itchy eruptions ] bullous [vesicles and bulla e development ],ulcerative [ painful ulceration] p igmentated [ dark brown patches over the sun exposed area].

Melasma

What is melasma?

Melasma is a common skin problem it causes grayish brownish and blotchy pigmentation over the face. This type of pigmentation is sometimes called cholasma.

Melasma is more common in women than in men as it is often associated with female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Thus it is common in pregnant women, women who take birth control pills, women taking hormone replacement therapy [HRT] during menopause.

It is thought to be primarily related to daily or intermittent external sun exposure and tropical climates.

It generally starts between the age of 20 and 50yrs.

Melasma is more common in people who have naturally brown skin than compared with those who have fair skin. Melasma is usually found over cheekbone, nasal bridge, forehead, and jaw line.

Causes of melasma:

The exact cause remains unknown but as per experts, there are many triggering factors:

• Continuous daily sun exposure esp. in individual with genetic predisposition.
• Pregnancy
• Hormonal replacement therapy
• Family history of melasma
• Certain medication that make the skin more prone to pigmentation after exposure to ultra violet rays.

Symptoms of melasma:

The only symptom of melasma is symmetrical grayish to dark brown patches; generally appear on cheek, bridge of nose, and forehead.

Dos and don’ts of melasma:

• The first line of defense is sun screen lotion try to apply sun screen every 2 hour if your job is to be continuously out in sun.
• Always use natural products for skin.
• Apply lemon on pigmented spots for 10 minutes daily as it works as natural skin lightner.
• Avoid harsh chemical products on affected areas.

Modern Lifestyle and Psoriasis

Modern Lifestyle and Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a basically auto-immune dysfunction of the body. Improper lifestyle is a very important factor for development of any kind of auto-immune dysfunction in the body. Modern-day lifestyle includes long working hours, unhealthy diets, mostly sedentary life, lack of exercise, drug abuse, tobacco chewing, alcohol drinking etc. Self medication for some very trivial some ailments like headache, nausea, sleeplessness, stress is very dangerous and prolonged self-medications like some pain killers, anti-pyretic medicine, antibiotics, anti-anxiety medicines can cause psoriatic lesions over the body. Researchers have seen that around 10-30% of all the patients suffering from psoriasis had gone for some sort of drug overdose prior to developing psoriatic lesions over the body. Sometimes what happens some people suffering from psoriasis or psoriatic arothropathy might take some anti-biotic or pain killer medication which can aggravate the psoriatic disease condition in the body.

Obesity and weight loss and Psoriasis:

According to a clinical trial based in Denmark it has been observed that people with psoriasis who lose weight could experience some relief from the symptoms of their chronic skin disease. Weight loss should be done through a low-calorie diet, the patients who lost weight, reported less stinging and burning, were less likely to be embarrassed by unsightly lesions, and found that their condition affected their everyday life less often. The patients who are suffering from psoriatic arothropathy would definitely have control in their pain and discomforts in case they lose certain amount of weight. Apart from this some patients who are morbidly obese might develop a skin disease condition, known as acanthosis nigricans, which in turn can cause increment of the psoriatic condition of the body. Obesity also cause certain amount of stress and low feeling in the mind of the sufferer because of look, thus losing weight can also enhance the sense of good feeling among the patients.

Alcohol, smoking and tobacco chewing and Psoriasis:

There are lots of recent studies which show that smoking causes increased incidence of psoriasis and decreased rates of recovery from psoriasis in smokers. The risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. It has been hypothesized that nicotine has internal effects on the immune system and skin cell growth. It has been seen that the women who smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day is about 2.5 times prone to develop psoriatic lesions than the men who is 1.7 times more prone of their non-smoker counterpart.

The persons who are heavy drinker also might end up with increased level of neuropeptide secretion and causes much more increase in itching and burning over the area.

Molluscum Contagiosum

What is molluscum contagiousum ?

Molluscum contagiosum is one of the common skin disorder ..it is characterized by pink or flesh coloured painless pearly bumps over the skin.

This caused by virus and is contagious . it mainly affects the children of 1 to 10 yrs.

Size of the lesion varies from pin head to large as pensil eraser. They may appear in the body any where including face ,neck, chest, arm pits, legs.

Cause of molluscum contagiosum :

The pox virus which causes molluscum contagisum spreads easily through:

1. Direct skin to skin contact.
2. Contact with contaminated objects such as toys, towel,clothing .
3. Sexual contact with an infected partner.
4. People who participate in contact sports such as foot ball,wrestling,swimming.
5. People with weak immune system : aids ,cancer….. or children with atopic dermatitis.

Symptoms of molluscum contagiosum :

• It starts with small painless bumps which may be single or more than 10 in no .
• Lesions are Shiny and smooth in appearance .
• They can become red and inflamed .
• Size of lesions may vary from 2 to 5 millimeters .
• These lesions are filled with waxy material .
• In few cases patient may feel itching over the affected area.

Complications of molluscum contagiosum :

• In ignored or badly treated cases it can some times lead to secondary bacterial infection from scratching and can lead to pain and pus formation .
• if lesions are on eye lids they can lead to conjunctivitis .
• Eruptions can also lead to scarring .

DOS AND DONTS OF MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM:

• Build habit of washing hands in kids more often.
• Do not share the objects like toys ,clothes ,shaving kit.
• Never touch ,rub or scratch the lesions they may lead to infection of further contamination and scarring .
• If you are infected wash the clothes separately.
• Do not shave the affected area.
• Moisturize the skin if it is dry.
• Keep the affected areas clean.

Ringworm Infections

What is ringworm infections[ fungal infections ] ?

Ringworm is common infectious skin disorder …and caused by fungual infections [dermatophytes ] a group of fungi that that invade and grow in dead skin. They tend to grow on skin and produce ring like pattern hence the term ringworm is used ..
the medical term for this is tinea and types of ring worm infections include

Tinea corporis ,tinea cruris, tinea capitis ,tinea pedis ,tinea mannum .

Causes of ring worm :

The infections can happen for any one of the reasons :

• If the skin is oily
• If you sweat a lot.
• You live in hot climate .
• You have weak immune system.
• The infections can spread from person to person through various modes by contact with the infected skin areas…or by sharing combs ,brushes , clothing .
• Communal showers and swimming pools ,locker areas are another areas in which transmission is possible .

Different Types of ringworm :

Tinea barbae : ring worm infection of beard area of face and neck.
Tinea capitis : ringworm of scalp commonly occur in children.
Tinea corporis : when fungus affects skin of the body.
Tinea cruris : when fungus affects groin area of body .
Tinea mannus : ringworm involving the hands particularly palms and between fingers.
Tinea pedis : ringworm involves soles between toes of foot ..this condition is also called athelete foot.
Tinea unguinum : fungal infections of nails .

Symptoms of ringworm :

• On affected areas there will be excessive itching and irritation.
• On affected areas there will be round or ring shaped and raised lesions with active border .
• outer surface of the border of the patch will be more red .
• Some times Scaling ,crusting ,raised areas or blister like lesions can appear around the active border.

Complications of ring worm :

Some times fungal infections may lead to secondary bacterial infections …with pain and pus formation of the affected areas .
And in severe cases lesions may spread to other body parts .

DOS AND DON’TS IN RINGWORM [FUNGAL INFECTION] :

• Always keep the affected area dry and cool .
• Don’t share your towel ,clothings , and personal care products to avoid the spread of infection.
• Always maintain personal hygiene ..to avoid infection ..Wash your hands more frequently and wash your clothes separately.
• Wear clean and dry clothes.
• Change your bedsheets more often .
• Refrain from sexual intercourse if fungal infection is in the sexual areas of body.

Seborrhoeic Dermatitis

What is seborrhoeic dermatitis ?

It is a very common…chronic form of skin eczema that occurs in parts of the body with high oil (sebum) production. Body areas that are commonly affected include the scalp, ears, face, chest, and folds of skin, such as the underarms or the skin below breasts,groin or overhanging abdominal folds.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis may also involve inflammatory reaction due to excessive growth of fungus malassezia furfur this might be due to the reduced resistance of the patient to this fungus.

One common manifestation of seborrhea that affects the scalp is stubborn dandruff. Scalp seborrhea can also present as thick, flaky, localized patches of scale. Often, scalp seborrhea doesn’t even itch significantly.

It occurs in all age groups but adults are affected more than children….in infants commonly affected area is scalp.

Symptoms of seborrhoeic dermatitis :

• Thick patchy crusts on scalp,eyebrows or ears which is hard to remove .
• Sorness and mild itching
• Crust or patches are yellowish or white in colour .
• Greasy red skin.
• Dandruff or flakes
• Hair loss: Long lasting cases may cause permanent damage of hair follicle and hair loss.

Risk factors of developing seborrhoeic dermatitis:

There are certain risk factors which might trigger this dermatitis like psychological stress,change of season oily skin,close friend or relative , stress ,infrequent shampooing ,poor hygiene or any specific allergy to certain products ,weakened immune system like in HIV/AIDS,alcoholic pancreatitis.

Complication of seborrhoeic dermatitis:

Seborrhoeic dermatitis can lead to permanent hair loss and secondary bacterial infections.

Self care tips to manage seborrhoeic dermatitis:

• patient should keep the area clean and dry .
• frequent shampooing done to avoid the crust and patch formation and affected area should be kept moist with use of olive oil 1-2 hrs before shampooing .
• shampoo should also be applied to chest and beard area and upper back.
• Avoid alchol based products.

Stress and Psoriasis

Stress and Psoriasis:

Scientists had observed that certain changes in life like physical stress, emotional triggers like family problems, financial worries are acting as aggravating factors for psoriasis. Prolonged and unresolved stress which persists for long period might cause psoriasis, but it does not have any strong scientific relation between the two. The stressors, like marriage problems or a job loss, make psoriasis worse. Studies show that 30% to 70% people with psoriasis are “stress responders,” meaning that emotional stress symptoms can trigger physical ups-and-downs in their disease. There are few chemical messengers like neuropeptides, which increases when anyone remain in stressful situations and release of this type of chemical messenger cause pain , itching and inflammation, thus psoriasis gets triggered up.

Homeopathic Solution:

In classical homeopathy we take the entire case history and during the case taking, we also consider the different life events and stressful periods of life. In classical homeopathy we believe that like psoriasis, all the kinds of auto-immune disease start off only after some major challenge in life event. Thus our medication will be on the basis of that and that is the reason why with proper homeopathic prescription, we can get to the root of cause which started the disease condition and then get it rectified with the help of proper medication.

Exercise:

There are few deep breathing exercises like pranayams and meditation which lowers down the stress level and it causes relief in psoriasis.

Psychotherapy:

Psychotherapy given by the professional psychologists and counseling helps the patients to manage the emotional issues that stem from life with psoriasis. The therapist also helps the patient to calm the stresses. Also in India patients who are suffering from psoriasis deals with some sort of social stigma, which in turn can cause as an aggravating factor for psoriasis. Thus proper help from an authentic psychotherapist or behavioral therapist is mandatory.